Social capital and online hate production: A four country survey
From Springer Press:
This article uses data from people between the ages of 15 and 30 in the United States, Finland, Germany, and the United Kingdom to examine the relationship between the production of online hatred and social capital. One key finding is that respondents with increased offline social capital were less likely to produce online hatred. On the other hand, those with high online social capital were more likely to produce online hatred.